A Fungible-Token (FT) standard for assets and smart contracts powered by Bitcoin Script and enforced by miners via the normal UTXO consensus rules at the base layer. This specification provides the same SPV-guarantees and peer-to-peer distribution for any asset or computation, just like the native Bitcoin Satoshi tokens.
Copyright 2020. MatterPool Inc. SuperAsset Smart Contract Specification, Technical Designs and Algorithms are licensed under GPLv3.
Attila Aros - Chief Technology Officer, MatterPool Inc. [email protected]
Contributors: Dean Little, Daniel Krawisz.
Special thanks to Josh Petty for suggesting the name "SuperAsset".
Document version 1.0.4
This paper introduces a novel Fungible-Token (FT) smart contract called "SuperAsset" that has the same properties as the native Bitcoin Satoshi token unit of account. It is backed by the same proof-of-work and consensus mechanism that are enforced by Bitcoin miners. Specifically, we emulate the Conservation of Satoshi Quantity balancing requirement in Script when spending colored outputs and we therefore inherit all the capabilities afforded such as SPV, trustless verification and double-spend protection.
This is a breakthrough design and the world's first smart contract specification for a truly scalable token asset protocol that has the same "cash-like" peer-to-peer properties that users are accustomed to when transacting in native "non-colored" or "plain" Satoshis. The transaction size and history always grows linearly just like the plain Satoshi UTXOs. SPV works exactly as expected with the identical security guarantees. There is no way to corrupt state, man-in-the-middle, or pull of a replay-attack and furthermore users cannot accidentally destroy ("burn") coins nor spend coins that do not belong to them (Same guarantees as plain Satoshi UTXOs themselves).
Building on the concept of a Bitcoin Agent, we introduce a Distributed Verification Network and also introduce a novel and completely optional "asset block committment hash" technique for being able to quickly check if the other Agent operators are claiming to be in consensus or not. The key strength of this technique is that when a problem is detected, the resolution of the corruption is always in the most recent blocks and the UTXO sets can be trivially compared to identify the problem.
This design allows anyone to build a fungible (or non-fungible) smart contract asset that are truly distributed and backed by the full power of the Bitcoin proof-of-work system. It works exactly as many have desired for years. Various colored coins implementations have been created and none have been able to achieve the pure Colored Satoshi ideal, until now.
Note: Throughout this paper "Bitcoin" refers to the original protocol "Bitcoin (BSV)".
Table of Contents
This builds upon the concepts described in the paper introducing Bitcoin Agent. The reader may find it helpful for understanding the operations of this smart contract design.
We want our digital asset protocol to be as efficient as possible and maximally capable like the native Bitcoin system itself - but running inside the Bitcoin scripts executed by miners. Specifically we want all of the same benefits and guarantees as the native Satoshi itself as processed by any Bitcoin node. We want Byzantine consensus at scale, Simplified Payment Verification (SPV), tamper-resistance, trustless verification, and efficient zero-indexing overhead. We will have our cake and eat it too, so to speak.
This is a system capable of scaling to millions of transactions per second, ultra-low fees and full Byzantine fault tolerance and permissionless (and permissioned) smart contracting capabilities that will put Ethereum, EOS, Chainlink out of business.
We develop a smart contract specification in this paper that allows fungible types that have an initial quantity supply that can be sent around like regular Satoshis themselves (ie: transferred, merged, split, etc). Each Satoshi represents an indivisible unit of a token. This means that a Satoshi could be worth more or less than the value of the token itself. If the token is worth less, then the owner can melt out the Satoshis from the token and thereby destroying the token itself via "un-coloring" the UTXO.
The key insight is that Bitcoin nodes themselves are pattern matching the coinbase tx coin emissions and tracks their downstream transactions only in a data-structure called UTXO Set, which is built up block by block from the chain of valid state transformations (ie: spends).
Statement 1.0 We define our own "minting events" for colored coins in a matter similar to how any Bitcoin node detects the coinbase tx pattern for coin emission. Any Bitcoin Agent interested in tracking a specific colored coin types can trivially parse outputs for each transaction in a block and pattern match against the (static) smart contract code part that comprises the logic of the colored coin.
Any efficient token indexer will only store transaction histories of interest pertaining only to the tokens it is indexing. Specifically each UTXO should have the entire relevant parent history so that any independent user or auditor can trustlessly validate the entire parent chain of spends back to a minting event.
In other words, we modify the Bitcoin node or Agent service to ignore regular coinbases (by not adding the outpoint into the UTXO set) and instead perform a prefix match for the static part of the token minting transaction outputs it encounters. It simply peforms a "blind" (logic-less) fast rawhex pattern match against a whitelist of contracts/tokens of interest to the agent.
By making this one modification, it means that when reading raw blocks from the blockchain, in sequence at some starting height, then we can effectively build a zero-overhead UTXO data store that keeps precisely the relevant transactions from the minting transaction and their downstream children only. This forms a coherent UTXO shard. This shard is a subset of the total transactions, topologically related amongst themselves in inside and between blocks. There is "zero-overhead" (ie: no extra indexes are required) when compared to a regular Bitcoin 'global' node since the upper bound is identical - in the limit (ie: tracking your colored tokens and coinbase tx emission events) then it simply recovers the full blockchain UTXO set.
Statement 1.1 A Bitcoin node enforces the proof-of-work and validity of transactions. In particular it conserves the Satoshi quantity between the inputs and outputs (and any deficiency is taken as fees by the miner who included that transaction a block they mined).
We will show that we can build a Bitcoin script that is executed and enforced by Bitcoin nodes in the Bitcoin Virtual Machine (BVM) such that we can conserve quantities of arbitrarily "colored" Satoshis in a manner similiar to how the Bitcoin node itself enforces the balancing of the quantity of inputs and outputs. Our strategy for building a smart contract requires the power bestowed to plain uncolored Satoshis, but for any colored versions as well.
Statement 1.2: The entire chain of parent-child spend raw transaction history is required by some user or service to be able to verify authenticity with zero trust. Any wallet, user, or service can either proactively pre-index these spends (just like a Bitcoin node pre-indexes Satoshi UTXO spends, built up block by block) OR they can retro-actively ask for the entire history of the "coin title history" from the seller of the coins or a blockchain history lookup service. See: "Driving the point home..." in the Bitcoin Agent Whitepaper
This is not controversional as this is exactly what MatterCloud, ElectrumSV, Whatsonchain, Bitcoin-sv Node, Xoken Nexa, and all other mining and listening nodes perform today. That's merely what a node needs to do to build the UTXO set. They merely proactively index the entire chain of spends of coin emission events (coinbase transactions) starting from block height h=0. We generalize this concept in this paper to apply to indexing arbitrary minting "coin emission" events (ie: any smart contract or asset of interest) starting at some arbitrary block height h.
The Bitcoin Whitepaper points out that the chain of digital signatures is the coin. A single UTXO is not a coin. Neither is just the transaction id history. Nor is an SPV proof equal to a "coin", and neither is an API response from a blockchain service provider. If you do not have the chain of digital signatures, then you do not know 100% if the coins in hand are authentic. That's the trustless nature of Bitcoin in that everyone can get the complete hisory and check for themselves proactively or reactively as appropriate.
Every Bitcoin node is proactively indexing this chain of signatures and saving the raw transaction histories for later recall and re-organization. That's how the user or service knows the coins are authentic: because they verified the chain or paid someone to do it on their behalf. Such as ElectrumSV with ElectrumX and other "SPV light node" solutions or Bitcoin wallets.
Statement 1.3: At some point, a user or service must necessarily process through the entire history from minting event to subsequent latest spends at least once. Bitcoin nodes enforce consensus rules, however it is up to users and businesses to decide what minting events (and therefore their downstream transactions) are interesting amongst themselves. The Bitcoin mining nodes have no concept of "colored" UTXO's, they are just blindly executing the script transition rules.
Statement 1.4: It is desirable to maintain all the guarantees that the native Bitcoin Satoshi value itself is afforded. In particular, consensus at scale and speed of UTXOs, SPV, distributed fault-tolerance, tamper-resistance, trustless verification, efficient zero-indexing overhead, and immediate spend state corruption detection.
We need two fundamental basic ingredients to make a colored coin smart contract that itself is enforced on the same UTXO layer, and we outline what those are next.
Example: a supply of a hypothetical "DOGEBSV" in-game rewards points is decided to be capped at total supply of 100,000,000 units. Therefore exactly 1 BSV (100 million satoshis) needs to be deposited into the smart contract. The individual Satoshis themselves represent units of the token. A "DOGEBSV" token could be worth more or less than 1 Satoshi. At the time of writing 1 Satoshi is equal to about $0.0000018 USD. Even if the Bitcoin SV value increases by 1,000x fold, then it will still only be worth about $0.0018 USD per Satoshi token.
The Bitcoin Node or Agent merely indexes these unspent outpoints as any other transaction output, but merely tags it with the color
DOGEBSV along with the assetId for disambiguation.
This requirement to maintain the correct balance of colored input value to output value has never been solved until now. This is the most important requirement for the case of any fungible token because
merge function needs to prevent a coin from accidentally or maliciously spent in such a way as to inflate supply (awarding the attacker with new "colored" coins that they did not have) and it also prevents accidental burning of the coins. A wallet that doesn't understand the rules will be unable to spend the coins no matter what, even accidentally.
In other words the solution to this "conservation of value" or "balancing" of colored satoshis enforced at the Bitcoin native scripting is the key to unlocking enormous potential. The bulk of the specification deals with handling the
merge function as the
transfer functions are relatively simple.
Requirement 1. is easy to satisfy because the token contract code will be constant (static) and can be easily pattern matched and indentified by a Bitcoin Node or Agent via a white list.
"Hello, which smart assets and tokens can I index and show you today? Check the following options...." - Your friendly Hypothetical Smart Contract Explorer Site.
Requirement 2. Is much more difficult because we need a way to create constraints on the total colored input quantity compared to the total colored output quantity. The main problem we run into is that each inputs' unlocking script does not have access to each other sibling input's data directly nor it's value directly when under the BVM execution context. We will show in the rest of the paper how we can achieve this knowledge and create such a completely tight constraint.
Observe that Requirement 3.'s properties are actually just a mere consequence of Requirements 1. and 2. because they make the colored coins operation isomorphic to the UTXO Satoshi transfers themselves (they piggyback "on top, fused" to the Satoshi itself). We therefore inherent all the properties and benefits that the Bitcoin system affords these native Satoshis.
A note about the last point of Requirement 3f), it would be extremely undesirable to detect corruption that happened 100+ blocks ago. The recovery effort will be challenging and many systems would have ingested the corrupt data, leading to a small mutiny on your hands from your information technology teams and loss of trust with your customers and partners. This problem is fully solved in this specification below and introduces a novel and completely unrequired and optional Distributed Verification Nework that can be used to quickly detect corrupt service providers or mistakes almost immediately.
In the sections below we invent and describe the world's first fully permission-less fungible asset protocol for Bitcoin with identical security guarantees as the Bitcoin system itself. It is trivial to extend it to the permissioned cases with regulated issuers. It operates at the speed and efficiency of the UTXO model, it's inherent parallelizability, and extreme low-cost fees with the same (and better) capabilities than Ethereum, EOS, Chainlink, or anything that other blockchain systems attempt to provide.
The potenial of this technique and algorithm has applications far beyond simple fungible "colored coins" and will form a powerful substrate to carry any incentivized (valued) workload or computation across autonomous agents. The applications of this technology will completely transform the fields of commerce and finance, distributed systems, crowd-sourced intelligence, gaming, reputation systems, automated arbitration and insurance, logistics, amongst many others.
We use the following sections to detail the smart contract layout and algorithm for making this a reality.
The smart contract's output is laid out in the following manner. The fields
[ mergeCounter prevOuts input1PrevTx input2PrevTx ...] are present only in the case of the
merge function and can be omitted for
split. We should also opt to keep
mergeCounter and prevOuts in all other functions as it gives extra confidence and fully binds every input to every output scenario.
Transaction Output Layout:
========================================================================================== | | | CODE | OP_RETURN assetID ownerPubKey [ mergeCounter prevOuts input1PrevTx input2PrevTx ...] | | ==========================================================================================
The hardest case is
merge, so we explore it first. Specifically we are going to briefly discuss an
n-way input merge that results in combining up to
n colored input satoshis into a single colored output. The details and diagrams of the function is provided below.
The bulk of the complexity for
merge is dealing with Requirement 2. above for conserving the Satoshi quantity. This smart contract invention is the world's first solution to solve the
n-way colored input merge with a
O(N) growth rate in the number of inputs.
The challenging part is that each input does not know the other inputs' outpoint or satoshi value. The novel technique we introduce is to place the prevOut bytes and the respective parent input raw transaction bytes into the one and only colored output (in case of "merge"). In this way all colored inputs must necessarily validate that their view of
hash(prevOuts) obtained from their preimage matches the prevOuts hash in the output. We must also include each and every rawtx for each colored input, to the end of the output script because that's how we can know the correct satoshi value being spent after we parse the transaction. The prevouts are checked in the input parent raw tx's and then also in the inputs themselves, creating a tight severally and jointly bound constraint amongst all colored inputs and outputs.
Here is the information available from the pre-image:
We can see that if we provide the prevOuts in the single output and then we enforce each unlocked input to also have the same hash(prevOuts) (via checkcing it's own Preimage using a technique like OP_PUSH_TX and then we can effectively bind the balance to be conserved and validating all inputs and outputs are known in each execution context. Forgeries, attacks, man-in-the-middle, are all not possible. The colored coins can only be spent if they conform to the rules exactly.
CODE (required): Unchanging static smart contract code. Any Agent or node can trivially check this raw bytes and then add it to their spend or UTXO set. The reason the contract code appears at the beginning of the output bytes is to faciliate a fast prefix match. Any agents do not care about the particular assetID or state and just blindly process transaction outputs with no regard to the operation of SuperAsset style outputs.
This part remains constant in all transactions for the lifetime of the asset and cannot be changed. Everything after the OP_RETURN is the state data for the instance and must confirm to the rules in
CODE at each step of the way.
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 (36 bytes) upon initial deployment to the blockchain. After issuing/minting the asset, then the smart contract enforces setting the
assetID to the
prevOutpoint (36B) of the issuing transaction to prevent replay attacks.
Tokens cannot be forged without getting a different globally unique identifier making replays and forgeries trivial to detect.
ownerPubKey (required): Set to public key of initial owner (33B) on minting to initialize. Subsequent transfers can set any new owner. Only the current ownerPubKey can spend the output because the contract enforces a signature to be provided by the current owner to authorize the transaction.
mergeCounter (optional - required to be set to 02, (then 01...) for 'Merge')
To prevent the UTXO history chain from growing too fast, we enforce that a recently merged UTXO cannot be then again merged immediately. Instead the wallet must do two (2) regular transfers or split of the UTXO first before the merge operation can be performed again. This means the entire UTXO history (ancestor outputs) will grow only linearly
O(n) in the size of the chain of digital signatures going back to the minting event from the particular UTXO's being merged.
In other words, the spending transaction cannot include any inputs where
mergeCounter > 00 until it was split or transferred again twice (when it is then set to
mergeCounter=00 (or omitted) after a regular transfer or split). This is an inconvenience that can be invisible to the user with a wallet that is aware of the
mergeCounter status and can automatically spend them behind the scenes, so that all the user's tokens are always in a "mergeable" state if desired.
Without this requirement, then token histories would grow exponentially (when doing multiple merges in succession). We call this technique of "mergeability" a forward constraint on spends of the parents. Other token examples try to solve this by "looking backwards" and therefore cannot avoid the super linear factor in storage requirements that renders them useless after a few dozen or hundred transfers. (ie: 42TB in size after just a mere 32 transfers)
prevOuts (optional - required only for 'Transfer', 'Split' and 'Merge' function)
This is the raw bytes of the prevOuts of the current transaction. This gives us the information we need to know the structure of the sibling prevOuts. It makes the other inputs "knowable" (via hash(prevOuts)) to all inputs in the unlocking execution context. We write this to the single merged output, and each input is enforced to match it's own view of the hash(prevOuts) via the preimage. This means no other fake or corrupt inputs can be used to spend the transaction. The token will not be accepted for spending by Bitcoin miners in the case of a malicious or accidental forgery.
The outpoint (txid+index) array is included in the prevOuts and we therefore can look at the fields
input2PrevTx, ... to get the Satoshi value of the respective unlocked outpoints. The raw transaction bytes for each of the input parent's are needed because the prevOuts do not contain the satoshi value being redeemed. We must always get that from the complete parent transaction which contains the outpoint and the satoshi value being locked. (See next field below)
Observe that the size prevouts itself grows with
O(N) space and time complexity where
N in this case is the number of inputs to the current transaction.
input1PrevTx, input2PrevTx, input3PrevTx, ... (optional - required only for 'Merge')
In the case of a merge operation, there must be at least
n rawtx's of the respective parent previous transactions for each of the colored token inputs. This is required because we must hash the rawtx to arrive at the txid (trustlessly) and then constrain the unlocking prevOut txid+index to it's associated rawtx (then comparing to hash(prevOuts)). Effectively binding severally and jointly each input to the merged output.
SIGHASH_ALL signature is required on all colored inputs except the 1 funding input UTXO and output UTXO (which is signed with
The number of rawtx's to include is linear in the number of inputs to the current transaction, just like the
prevOuts bytes field.
Upon initial deployment, the user locks up a number of Satoshis. For example, if the user intends to issue 100,000,000 colored asset tokens, then they lock up that number of satoshis in the "genesis" transaction.
issue function gives a unique identity to the asset by enforcing that
assetID must be equal to the minting txid+index (prevOut) of the
issue transaction. This can never be changed for the lifetime of the asset in subsequent UTXO's. Any agent can trivially check a UTXO and locate the initial deployment of the smart contract and trustlessly build up the history if necessary.
SIGHASH_SINGLE is used on a funding input (not pictured) that is used to pay the mining fee in non-colored Satoshis as normal. Therefore an non-colored change output is also needed (in output position 0)
transfer function that allows spending a single input to another output. This is useful for making recently merged outputs to create a "gap" so that there is never 2 consecutive merges in a row. This can also be used to transfer ownership to any other owner.
SIGHASH_SINGLE is used on a funding input (not pictured) that is used to pay the mining fee in non-colored satoshis as normal. Therefore an non-colored change output is also needed (in output position 0)
A colored asset UTXO can be split to
n-outputs (2 outputs are pictured), conserving the satotshi quantity so that coins cannot be created or destroyed.
SIGHASH_SINGLE is used on a funding input (not pictured) that is used to pay the mining fee in non-colored satoshis as normal. Therefore an non-colored change output is also needed (in output position 0)
Any number of colored inputs can be safely merged with the transaction only growing linear
O(n) in the number of inputs. After a merge is completed, then the flag
mergeCounter=02 is set so that the wallet or user cannot accidentally merge an already recently merged UTXO thereby avoiding the exponential doubling in transaction size.
The wallet can trivially check the user has unspent coins with
mergeCounter=02 and then automatically spend them to the same
ownerPublicKey twice in a row (
mergeCounter=01 and then it is removed). This can be invisible to the user, and imposes no cognitive overhead or manual action because it can be fully automated with ease.
The only reason
n-input merging works successfully is because each unlocking input context has it's own preimage and therefore can impose a mutually binding constraint on every input by projecting forward the prevOuts and the raw transactions of the immediate prev parents. Recall that we can obtain
hash(prevOuts) from the raw prevOuts and also from the outputs being spent in the respective parent prev transactions that are also embedded in the newly created output.
SIGHASH_SINGLE is used on a funding input (not pictured) that is used to pay the mining fee in non-colored satoshis as normal. Therefore an non-colored change output is also needed (in output position 0)
A user can "melt" (ie: destroy) their asset tokens and redeem the underlying satotshi conttent back to non-colored "plain" native satoshis. A user may opt to do this if the underlying asset becomes worth less than the value of the satoshi.
Future versions of this SuperAsset standard could include an immutable issuerPubKey in the initial deployment to allow only the original issuer to "melt" or redeem the colored outputs.
Similiar to how the blockhash is a commitment to the transactions in the block, we introduce an optional "asset block committment hashes" that gives independent agents a way to know they have arrived at the same consensus state. This also serves the purpose for informing partners, customers, and even adversaries that consensus state is achieved (or lost, so that the correction can be made quickly and efficiently).
The commitment hash is simply the:
We can even distribute this "colored token block" in serialized form and merklize the transactions so we could serve mini-SPV-like committments. It is not necessary for agents to use this committment scheme and no additional guarantees are provided except for the convenience notion that a large operator with many Bitcoin Agents can trivially see when a computer or hard drive has become corrupted.
Consider the following three Agents and a token type
DOGEBSV being tracked by all three.
DOGEBSV: 650,003: f7a8211a... 650,002: 5de1d2d... 650,001: bf3994a4... 650,000: e4bc9513...
DOGEBSV: 650,003: ab1802e... (DIFFERENT!) 650,002: 5de1d2d... 650,001: bf3994a4... 650,000: e4bc9513...
DOGEBSV: 650,003: f7a8211a... 650,002: 5de1d2d... 650,001: bf3994a4... 650,000: e4bc9513...
In the example above we can see that Agent 2 arrived at a different committment hash, perhaps because their disk or RAM got corrupted and a bit was flipped. By comparing to at least one other agent, it can be quickly determined what the problem is and recover gracefully.
Even though a forgery is trivially detected by inspecting the history or proactively indexing assets of interest, there will still be attackers who attempt to pass off a fake asset, just like they may attempt with fake native satoshi UTXOs.
As long as the user makes a request to a blockchain provider to fetch the entire parent history (or demands that a seller of an asset provide their complete copy of the history) then the user cannot be tricked into accepting a fake asset.
Notice the disincentive for an attacker: since the supply is one and the same as the Satoshi unit of account it then means they must give away free fake colored satoshis. Upon discovering this forgery, the new owner of these fake assest (which themselves are real valuable satoshis) can be melted back for a small tiny profit.
The size of output itself grows with
O(N) space and time complexity where
N in this case is the number of inputs to the current transaction. Even though we embed the entire prev raw transactions it is still linear and this will be scalable for n-inputs and not just a 2-input merge scenario.
Also let's recognize that the size of the history of the UTXO token state grows linearly for sufficiently large constant
C=2 kilobytes. Because we do not allow merging immediately after a merge, then the history will grow
O(C*N) = O(N) which is still linear space and time complexity. If we allowed a merge to immediately follow a merge, then the transaction size would grow double in size with each subsequent merge. That is why it is disallowed.
Example: a 4KB output smart contract will grow in size with 3 inputs like so:
An example with 4-way mergeable inputs:
Extending the base contract can be done easily, and a number of important vareties can be created.
If the issuer enforces that it's issuerPubKey is minted into the deployment, and carried forward in all subsequent UTXOs, then the
melt function could be changed to allow only spending to the
issuerPubKey is possible (ie: issuer needs to authorize the redemption or melting)
When the contract is deployed, we can create two outputs: 1 for
issue and another for a
supplyIncrease output. This second output represents a "supply increase output baton" that can be spent by the issuer to increase supply of the token quantity. This can be a useful technique for also 'recycling' coins to reduce the history for the users of the token asset. And of course it is inherently useful for coins which naturally get lost or decay and must be replenished.
We can create a Non-Fungible Token (NFT) where the satoshi value is equal to 1 (then by definition it is non-fungible). However we wish to make a modification that does not allow
split but instead allows a single quantity of Satoshis (say 100,000) to be fused into the NFT which in essence acts as a kind of "bitcoin reserve value" on the price floor of the asset.
The specification and examples above use an Address (Ripemd160) for change address output. However this need not be the case and we can allow any other valid output to receive the change. The only restriction we must enforce is that this change output does not contain the constant static part tof the
CODE. We must ensure the change is not-colored and that is how we can enforce it easily.
Furthermore, by allowing any funding inputs to be added, other smart contracts can interact with this contract and be used to trigger various events. More work needs to be done to explore this area.
Voting: By issuing 'voting tokens', then each UTXO holder can update a
payload via a potential
updateState method that can express a voting preference. Resolving the current voting result status is siimply enumerating all UTXO's and then aggregating their responses, weighted by total voting token quanitty.
Distributed Computation: A recursive computation can be incentivized and a value assigned so that independent workers can process the work in parallel and receiving the 'reward' for their work by 'melting' down the token upon submission of a successful solution to unlock the native satoshis underneath.
Games: The ability to create non-divisible (in the case of a token supply of 1 satoshi) and divisible assets means users can own unique property that they control directly. Games can create an in-game currency that has inherent value because they are backed by satoshis themselves. Items can be "infused with Bitcoin" to give them value. Imagine a powerful sword item with 0.25 Bitcoins that gets passed along to the future owners (hopefully after turning a tidy profit and healthy margin on this one-of-a-kind in game item.)
Logistics and Tracking: A shipping company can track each vehicle with a unique colored UTXO. When a new stage or delivery checkpoint is met, then the truck driver can update the UTXO state with it's coordinates and status. Real-time analysis is possible and history can be analyzed for patterns.
Trade and commerce: Businesses and users can easily issue and loyalty points, coupons, and other rewards to increase business and customer options. The nature of the token makes it easy to integrate with any point-of-sale system, reporting requirements, and mobile kiosks in exactly the same way as sending regular Bitcoin cryptocurrency.
This paper introduced a novel Fungible-Token (FT) smart contract called "SuperAsset" that has the same properties as the native Bitcoin Satoshi token unit of account. It is backed by the same proof-of-work and consensus mechanism that are enforced by Bitcoin miners. As a result we inherit all the capabilities afforded such as SPV, trustless verification and double-spend protection.
This breakthrough design for a token smart contract specification enables a truly scalable token asset protocol that has the same "cash-like" peer-to-peer properties that users are accustomed to when transacting in native "non-colored" or "plain" Satoshis. The transaction size and history always grows linearly just like the plain Satoshi UTXOs. SPV works exactly as expected with the identical security guarantees. There is no way to corrupt state, man-in-the-middle, or pull of a replay-attack and furthermore users cannot accidentally burn coins nor spend coins that do not belong to them (Same guarantees as plain Satoshi UTXOs themselves).
We introduced a distributed verification network upon the conceptual framework of the Bitcoin Agent, w and also introduce a novel and completely optional "asset block committment hash" technique for quickly checking consensus state with other peers. The key strength of this technique is that when a problem is detected, the resolution of the corruption is always in the most recent blocks and the UTXO sets can be trivially compared to identify the problem.
This design allows anyone to build a fungible (or non-fungible) smart contract asset that are truly distributed and backed by the full power of the Bitcoin proof-of-work system.
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TERMS AND CONDITIONS
"This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.
"Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks.
"The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as "you". "Licensees" and "recipients" may be individuals or organizations.
To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.
A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program.
To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well.
To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.
An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices" to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.
The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. "Object code" means any non-source form of a work.
A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language.
The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A "Major Component", in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.
The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work.
The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source.
The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work.
All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.
You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.
Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary.
No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures.
When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.
You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.
You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified it, and giving a relevant date. b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to "keep intact all notices". c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it. d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so.
A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate.
You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways:
a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange. b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge. c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 6b. d) Convey the object code by offering access from a designated place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements. e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d.
A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work.
A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, "normally used" refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product.
"Installation Information" for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made.
If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM).
The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network.
Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying.
"Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions.
When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:
a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or d) Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or e) Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or f) Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors.
All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further restrictions" within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.
If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms.
Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.
You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.
You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.
Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.
You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".
A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.
Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.
In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To "grant" such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.
If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.
If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.
A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.
Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.
THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
<program> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands
show w' and show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands
might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read https://www.gnu.org/licenses/why-not-lgpl.html.